The Double Cone Quarterly
Window to the Wilderness
Summer Solstice 1999 || Volume II, Number 2


Unique and Noteworthy Plants
of the Santa Lucia Mountains

Part Two:
Lupinus (Lupines): Two Endemics and a Montane Disjunct

by David Rogers


With their distinctive leaves, which are divided into leaflets that diverge from a central point, and their flowers which are produced in terminal spike-like racemes, members of the genus Lupinus are easy to distinguish from other kinds of wildflowers. As evidenced by the pea-like flowers and fruits, the genus belongs to the Pea or Bean Family (Fabaceae), and is comprised of about 200 species. Most of the species occur in North America (especially western North America) and in western South America, but some species are native to tropical South America and the Mediterranean region, and a number of species have become naturalized in other parts of the world. Seventy species plus numerous lesser taxa occur in California, and at least 17 species and four lesser taxa are native to the Santa Lucia Mountains. Noteworthy lupines of this region include a beautiful and highly distinct endemic species, Lupinus cervinus, an endemic lesser taxon, Lupinus albifrons abramsii, and a unique montane disjunct, Lupinus stiversii. There are also a number of lupines that reach their most southern or most northern limits of their natural distribution in these mountains.


Lupinus cervinus Kellogg [L. latissimus Greene].
Santa Lucia Lupine.

These showy-flowered perennial herbs, which represent one of the most beautiful members of their genus, are scattered in woodlands and rocky openings in chaparral at higher and intermediate elevations in the Santa Lucia Mountains of Monterey and San Luis Obispo counties. To the north the species ranges to at least the Ventana Double Cone and the upper reaches of Miller's Canyon, and the most southern known locality is in the vicinity of Lopez Mountain, about four miles east of San Luis Obispo. The exceptionally large and broadly oblong-ovate to oblanceolate leaflets of this species are quite distinctive, so much so that after one has become familiar their appearance, plants can be identified at a glance, even when flowers are not present.

Lupinus cervinus. This photograph, taken in early June of this year (a year that is characterized in the Santa Lucia Mts. by the scarcity of wildflowers in general, and small size of most of many of those that manifest themselves), depicts plants with relatively small inflorescences. Those who have a copy of the latest (6th) edition of the Sierra Club's trail guide to the Monterey Division of Los Padres National Forest should turn to page 74, where there is a photograph of a group of Santa Lucia Lupines in the fullest of their glory. Although the photo is sub-captioned "Abrams' Lupine in burn area," the color of the flowers and the size, shape and color of the leaflets clearly demonstrate that these are Santa Lucia Lupines.

The type specimen of Lupinus cervinus was collected "in piney woods" in the vicinity of Cone Peak by William Lobb in 1849, while he was on an expedition to the Santa Lucia Mountains to procure Abies bracteata (Santa Lucia Fir) seeds from which the later species was introduced into Europe. The L. cervinus specimen was included in a collection that Mr. Lobb sold to the California Academy of Sciences (the Randall purchase), and in 1862 Albert Kellogg recognized that it represented a taxon hitherto unknown to science. Kellogg noted that this was "a very marked [distinct], fine [attractive], robust species, worthy of cultivation" (Kellogg 1863). Edward Greene, a professor of botany at the University of California at Berkeley and later an associate of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C., was unaware of the fact that this species had already been identified, for in 1912 he named it L. latissimus (Greene 1912). The type for L. latissimus was one of A. D. E. Elmer's "Tassajara Hot Springs" specimens of June, 1901 (Elmer #3292 DS), which, according to a note in an envelope pasted to the sheet, was collected near "Pine Valley, pine woods towards Bear Basin." Greene noted that this was "a lupine of unusual aspect and mode of growth, the leaflets few and remarkably broad." Kellogg's name for the species translates as "Deer Lupine," while Greene's name translates to "Broadest Leafleted Lupine."

A life-sized illustration of the type specimen of Lupinus cervinus that accompanied its description in volume two of the Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences (1863).

 

Description.

Herbaceous (non-woody) evergreen perennial herbs with flowering stems ranging from about 1.5 to 7.5 dm. (6-30") tall. The leaves are alternate and produced near the base of the plant, and the blades are palmately divided into five to eight broadly oblong-ovate to oblanceolate leaflets that vary considerably in size. Smaller leaves, which can have petioles as little as 3 cm. long, can have leaflets less than 1 cm. long and .5 cm. wide, while larger leaves, which can have petioles as much as 20 cm. long, sometimes have leaflets as much as 9 cm. long and 3 cm. wide. The stems and leaves are covered with a sparse to moderately dense pubescence that varies from woolly to upwardly appressed. The shortly pedunculate flowers, which are about 14 to 16 mm. long, are primarily produced in whorls on showy racemose terminal spikes about 12 to 25 cm. long. The petals are mostly pink or reddish pink, but some are reported to be purplish or purplish-blue, and they fade to a light brown with age; the banner (the upper petal) has a pale-yellow spot in the center. The fruit is a four to seven seeded legume about 3 cm. long.

 

An illustration of Lupinus cervinus from volume two of Willis Linn Jepson's "A Flora of California" (1936).

Locations

Monterey County

"Ventana Double Cone, near summit." Vern Yadon (PG), June 8, 1975.

"Top of Ventana Double Cone, 4800 ft." Clare Hardham #3507 (CAS), May 16, 1962.

"Pine Valley, pine woods towards Bear Basin." A. D. E. Elmer #3292 (DS), type for L. latissimus Greene, June 1901.

Along the Bear Basin Trail about a quarter of a linear mile southwest of Pine Valley Camp. David Rogers #397, May 20, 1993.

"In woods along trail to Pine Ridge, near China Camp." Milo Baker #7833 (CAS), August 7, 1934.

"Trail to Pine Valley, 200 yards uphill from trail head at China Camp." Vern Yadon (PG), June 24, 1979.

"Below Pine Ridge Trail and near junction with Pine Valley trail." Vern Yadon, unpublished notes, May 10, 1980.

"Two locations above Bear Basin and two near Pine Ridge Camp below South Ventana Cone." Vern Yadon, unpublished notes, June 23-24, 1979.

On the summit of Pine Ridge and in rocky or gravely openings in chaparral along the Black Cone Trail within one mile of Pine Ridge. Personal observation.

"Scattered on westerly approach to ridge summit and top [of the Elephant's Back]. Abundant on northwesterly extensions of the ridge. More than I have ever seen before." Vern Yadon, unpublished notes, July 4, 1980.

"Big Sur, Pick place." Joseph Burtt Davy #7433 (UC), May-June 1901.

"Tassajara Springs" (a generalized location). Junea Kelly (CAS), June 1, 1917.

"Common in coniferous forest on north slope of Junipero Serra Peak, el. ca. 5000 ft." John T. Howell #30164 (CAS), May 17, 1955.

"Santa Lucia [Junipero Serra] Peak." Mary Strong Clemens (CAS), October 3, 1921.

"In pine woods on top of Santa Lucia [Junipero Serra] Peak." William R. Dudley (DS), May 13, 1895.

"Divide about 1.5 miles north of Cone Peak." Philip Munz #20908 (CAS), June 19, 1955.

"Arroyo Seco Road at Santa Lucia Camp" (Santa Lucia Memorial Park). John T. Howell #6532 (CAS), May 23, 1931.

"Along Gamboa trail below Cone Peak, on east ridge, 4000 ft." Beatrice Howitt #540 (CAS), May 30, 1955.

"Rocky slopes, Cone Peak." Clare Hardham #3507 (CAS), June 4, 1958.

"In piney woods" in the vicinity of Cone Peak. William Lobb #119 (CAS), type, 1849.

"Trail from Cone Peak." Philip Munz #20912 (CAS), June 19, 1955.

"Road to Cone Peak." Vern Yadon (PG), June 5, 1960.

"Upper San Antonio River, alt. ca. 1600." Willis Linn Jepson #1652 (JEPS), June 17, 1901.7

"Coast trail near Lucia." Willis Linn Jepson #1666a (JEPS), June 17, 1901.

"About 3 miles north of road from Jolon to the coast, along ridge at summit of range." Reid Moran (CAS), May 21, 1939.

"Cone Peak road about 2 miles north of main Jolon to coast highway, el. 3000 ft." Philip Munz #20942 (CAS), June 20, 1955.

"Road to Alder Creek Forestry Camp, about 1.5 mi. north of camp." Philip Munz #20947 (CAS), June 20, 1955.

"Ridge between Willow Creek and Alder Creek, 3000 ft." Clare Hardham #6057 (CAS), June 7, 1960.

"Burro trail, both sides of summit." Katherine Brandegee (cited in Jepson, 1936), June 1909.

San Luis Obispo County.

"Edge of pine-oak woods, Pine Mountain." Clare Hardham #5613 (CAS), May 5, 1960.

"Pine Canyon above San Simeon." Robert Hoover #7903 (CAS), May 7, 1950.

"Near summit of ridge west of upper Lopez Canyon." Robert Hoover #8928 (CAS), June 5, 1954.

 


 

Lupinus albifrons Bentham var. abramsii (C. P. Smith) Hoover [L. a. C. P. Smith].
Los Pesares Lupine, Abrams' Lupine.

Although many specimens from the Santa Lucia Mountains have been assigned to this taxon, only a few exhibit the decidedly long, spreading and shaggy-woolly pubescence (hairiness) of the type specimen. The remainder have a shorter and somewhat woolly or shaggy pubescence that is more or less upwardly ascending, demonstrating a genetic relationship with L. a. var. collinus, which also occurs in the Santa Lucia Mountains. In variety collinus the hairs are relatively short, straight and upwardly appressed (i., e., they lay flat against the surfaces of the stems and leaves). In regards to the nature of pubescence, that of var. collinus is generally the same as two other taxa of the L. albifrons complex that are also present in the Santa Lucia Mountains, the typical species (L. a. var. albifrons) and L. a. var. douglasii. Varieties abramsii and collinus differ from varieties albifrons and douglasii in that they are low-growing subshrubs with decumbent to prostrate branches, while varieties albifrons and douglasii are standing shrubs with distinct trunks. Varieties albifrons and douglasii are distinguished by the length of the floral bracts, these are 4 to 8 mm. long in var. albifrons and 10 to 24 mm. long in var. douglasii.

Lupinus albifrons abramsii, an intermediate form on a bank of Tassajara Road on Chew's Ridge. Normally the inflorescences of this taxon are much larger and more numerous, but this was the best specimen that I could find in this meager wildflower year.

The type specimen of L. albifrons abramsii (Abrams #7358 DS) was collected by Leroy Abrams on May 9, 1920, at Jaime de Angulo's "Rancho los Pesares" on Partington Ridge. Mr. Abrams was a longtime professor of botany at Stanford University, and the author of three of the four volumed "Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States." Mr. de Angulo, the "Old Coyote" of Big Sur, was an eccentric M. D. who did not practice medicine, but was an avid student of linguistics, anthropology and ethnology. Mr. de Angulo named his homestead "Rancho los Pesares" (Ranch of the Sorrows) because he felt that the coast was full of sorrows, as well a magnificently beautiful place (Clark 1991).

According to Abrams' field notes, his "Santa Lucia trip" of 1920 began on the eighth of May, and on the ninth he collected specimens at "Los Pesares," which included the type specimen of L. a. abramsii. On May 11th he was collecting plants along the "North Fork Big Sur River," "North Fork of Big Sur & Cienega Creek," and at "Cienega." On May 12th he collected plants on "Pine Ridge, south slope" and on the "Pine Ridge summit," and by May 14th he was collecting specimens from along the "Coast Trail, Rancho Los Pesares to Post's" and "near Castro's Ranch." The last group of specimens, which were dated May 17th, were collected on the "Sur Ridge," the "Coast Ridge back of Los Pesares," on "Logwood Ridge" and at "Mocho Camp."

Description

Evergreen subshrubs or prostrate shrubs with erect or ascending flowering stems ranging from about 2 to 6 dm. (8-24") tall. The leaves and stems are covered with a dense coat of woolly hair, which ranges from long and spreading to short and somewhat upwardly appressed. Older plants, at least those which are intermediate between the varieties abramsii and collinus, tend to send out numerous prostrate woody branches up to a meter long that can form densely foliated mats covering many square feet. The leaves are alternate and produced of petioles about .5 to 7 cm. long, and the blades are divided into eight or nine relatively narrow oblanceolate leaflets about 1 to 3 cm. long. The flowers are about 1 to 1.6 cm. long and produced in terminal spikes, and the petals range from reddish-lavender to bluish-purple, with the banner (upper petal) having a yellowish spot in the center. The fruit is a five to nine seeded legume about 2 to 4 cm. long.

Locations

The type specimen and those most similar to it, all of which are from Monterey County.

"Los Pesares." Leroy Abrams #7358, type, and #7360 (DS), May 9, 1920.

"Post ranch." Freed Hoffman #1536 (UC), May 8, 1947.

"1.5 miles north on Coast Ridge Road from junction with de Angulo Trail." Ron Branson #2001-2 (PG), May 6, 1984.

"At junction de Angulo trail and Coast Ridge Road." Ron Branson #2000-1 (PG), May 6, 1984.

"Big Sur Trail at Logwood summit above Cold Springs." Vern Yadon (PG), May 16, 1965.

"Partington Ridge above Sam Hopkins' house." Vern Yadon (PG), May 16, 1965.

"Coast Ridge Road summit above Partington Ridge." Vern Yadon (PG), May 13, 1967.

Intermediates between L. a. abramsii and L. a. collinus.

Monterey County

"Trail to Ventana Double Cone, 3,500 ft." Clare Hardham #10164 (CAS), May 14, 1962.

"Ventana Double Cone, on approach to summit within a few hundred yards." Vern Yadon (PG), June 8, 1975.

"Ventana Double Cone, 4800 ft." Clare Hardham #10174 (CAS), May 16, 1962.

"Chew's Ridge, 5000 ft." Clare Hardham #6207 (CAS), June 21, 1960.

"On a bank near road to Chew's Ridge Look Out by road to Tassajara Springs." Beatrice Howitt #1865 (CAS), June 22, 1964.

"Trail 2 miles west of China Camp, alt. 4300 ft." Philip Munz 320587 (UC), May 6, 1955.

"Scattered in rocky openings in chaparral, Tassajara Road above Tassajara Springs, Chews Ridge region. Elev. 4000 ft." James Griffin #3367 (JEPS), April 9, 1979.

"From Coast Road summit above Partington Ridge." Vern Yadon (CAS), May 13, 1967.

"Summit Road 2 miles south of Marble Peak." Vern Yadon (PG), May 19, 1968.

"Local on open gravel slope with Cycladenia, ca. 100 yards from summit of Santa Lucia [Junipero Serra] Peak." Joseph Ewan #9010 (CAS), September 9, 1934.

"North Ridge, Cone Peak, about 4000 ft." Clare Hardham #4902 (CAS), June 25, 1959.

"Cone Peak, 4000 ft." Clare Hardham #3510 (CAS), June 4, 1958.

"Westside trail up to summit, Cone Peak, elev. 4500 ft." James Griffin #3424 (JEPS), April 22, 1972.

"End of Cone Peak Road, alt. 4000 ft." Philip Munz #20867 (CAS), June 18, 1955.

"Santa Lucia Mountains." Alice Eastwood (CAS), June 9, 1893.

"South of the French Camp cabin on the Gamboa property [Landels-Hill Big Creek Reserve], el. 2600 ft." Cathy Genetti and Eric Engles #375 (CAS), May 25, 1982.

"Nacimiento River Canyon, 2000 ft." Philip Munz #20611 (CAS), May 7, 1955.

"West slope Nacimiento Summit, alt. 2000 ft." Philip Munz #20943 (CAS), June 20, 1955.

"Cruickshank Trail near Villa Creek, el. 2000 ft." Vern Yadon (CAS), April 8, 1967.

San Luis Obispo County

"Near Rocky Butte fire lookout." Robert Hoover #9062 (CAS), June 12, 1964.

 


 

Lupinus stiversii Kellogg.

Harlequin Lupine, Rose and Yellow Lupine.

The unique colors of Lupinus stiversii flowers, which have bright yellow banners (upper petals) and wings (lateral petals) that are usually rose-pink but can vary to purple or bluish purple, make it the most distinctive of the native lupines of California. In fact, all one needs to observe in order to make a certain identification of this species is the color of the flowers. Willis Linn Jepson made the following comments about this species:

Probably no two independent workers in botany would be likely to agree upon the specific limitations of any Californian species of Lupinus and their various forms with the exception of one species. That exception is Lupinus stiversii... With yellow banner and rose-pink wings it is a most beautiful species which is never mistaken by even the novice, nor confused with any other member of the genus (Jepson 1933).

 

Lupinus stiversii. Photograph by Albert Bekker. From the CalPhotos site of the Digital Library Project of the University of California at Berkeley. © 1999, California Academy of Sciences.

Lupinus stiversii is primarily a species of the Sierra Nevada, where it is found from Butte County to Kern County, but disjunct populations also occur in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountains of southern California, and even more disjunct populations occurs in the Santa Lucia Mountains of Monterey County. The type specimen was collected by Dr. Charles Austin Stivers, a Lieutenant in the U. S. Army, in the spring of 1862 (Kellogg 1863; Jepson 1933), and was sent to the California Academy of Sciences for identification by Albert Kellogg. According to Kellogg, the specimen was "found on the Sierra Nevada Mountains, at the Summit Meadows, on the Mariposa trail to Yo Semite, by Mr. Stivers," and represented "the first plant in blossom, growing within fifty yards of the snow" (Kellogg 1863).

Lupinus stiversii. Photograph by Charles Webber. From the CalPhotos site of the Digital Library Project of the University of California at Berkeley. © 1999, California Academy of Sciences.

The distribution of this species in the Santa Lucia Mountains is curious, for although it is a montane species, it appears to be absent from the higher-most elevations of this range, where most populations occur between about 2000 and 4600 ft. It is also a mystery as to why James Griffin did not encounter this species during his field research for his text on the plants of the higher elevations of the Santa Lucia Mountains, which includes all taxa found above about 2000 ft. (Griffin 1975). Griffin's failure to find this species may be due to its relatively short flowering season, and perhaps in combination with the fact that some populations appear to have an ephemeral nature (i.e., they inconsistently manifest themselves each year at a particular locality). An example of this phenomenon was Vern Yadon's discovery of a small population along the Pine Ridge Trail about a mile from the first summit west of China Camp in May of 1980. Yadon noted that "these had not previously been encountered along this portion of the trail which I have walked many times at this season" (Yadon, May 10, 1980). Likewise, I have traveled along the Pine Ridge Trail innumerable times during the spring months, and only once did I encounter this species along this route; I observed a few plants on an open south-facing slope about three quarters of a mile east of the Church Creek Divide in May of 1993.

Although some populations may have an ephemeral nature, others seem to manifest themselves on a regular basis. An example is a population along the Tony's Boulevard section of Tassajara Road, on a steep and grassy slope on the downhill side of the road a short distance north of The Cascades or Bathtub Spring, where Wildcat Creek crosses the road. It is likely that there are other populations on grassy openings in chaparral that are scattered along the west slope of Black Butte Ridge, for there are at least two steady populations in streambeds along the Church Creek Fault Zone, which probably established themselves from seeds washed downstream. One is along the Horse Pasture Trail at Horse Pasture Creek, and the other is along the Church Creek Trail at an unnamed stream between The Windcaves and The Mesa. Both populations occur on fans formed were the streams cross over relatively flat areas, and thus have deposited a large amount of rocky and gravely debris. Although the streams are intermittent, most of the time when they do flow they sink as they enter the fans and reemerge on the other side. As Lupinus stiversii is a species of open, dry and usually grassy habitats, the relatively sparse sylvan flora and dry soils on these fans provide suitable habitats (I have never seen this species along streams that flow through wooded areas).

Locally Lupinus stiversii populations also occur at lower elevations, as evidenced by Dennis Breedlove's specimen from Santa Lucia Creek (the one that is a tributary to the San Antonio River), which he collected at about 1500 ft., and William Dudley’s specimen, which was collected near the San Antonio school-house in 1895. I have no idea where this school-house was located, but if it was near Mission San Antonio, it would place the collection site at about 1000 ft. in elevation. Lower elevation populations in the Santa Lucia Mountains can also be large, as evidenced by Jon Libby's report that in one year he encountered plants near the road to The Indians that were spread over an area covering thousands of square feet (e-mails 5.18.1999 & 6.2.1999). The location was a short distance northwest of where the road crosses Santa Lucia Creek (the one that is a tributary of the San Antonio River), and thus at an elevation of about 1750 to 1850 ft.

An illustration of the type specimen of Lupinus stiversii that accompanied it's description in volume two of the Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences (1863).

Description.

Simple to freely-branched annual herbs ranging from about 1 to 4.5 dm. (4-18") tall. The leaves, which are alternate and on petioles (stems) about 3 to 8 cm. long, are palmately divided into six to eight cuneate to obovate leaflets about 1 to 4 cm. long. The flowers are about 13 to 18 mm. long and produced in compacted terminal spikes, and the corollas (petals) consist of a yellow banner (upper petal), which may have a few red spots in the center, two rose-pink or sometimes purple or purplish-blue wings (lateral petals), and a white or partially purplish keel (two central and partially united petals that are obscured by the wings). The fruit is a five to seven seeded legume about 2 to 2.5 cm. long.

Locations.

"Little Sur." Joseph Burtt Davy #7393 (UC), May-June 1901.

"Pat Springs to Puerto Suelo." Vern Yadon (PG), June 1975.

"Pine Valley under pines." A. D. E. Elmer #3271 (DS), June 1901.

"Also towards Miller Canyon" (from Pine Valley). From a note accompanying A. D. E. Elmer #3271 (DS), June 1901.

"Near Bear Basin camp on semi-shaded slope." Vern Yadon, unpublished notes, May 10, 1980.

"Pine Ridge trail approximately one mile below China Camp summit, along trail to Church Creek divide." Vern Yadon, unpublished notes, May 10, 1980.

Pine Ridge Trail about three quarters of a mile east of the Church Creek Divide. Personal observation, May 1993.

"On bank on road to Tassajara Springs below Chew's Ridge." Beatrice Howitt #1055 (CAS), May 30, 1958.

"Church Creek near Caves." Rimo Bacigalupi #1133 (DS), April 11, 1925.

Along the Church Creek Trail at an unnamed stream between The Windcaves and The Mesa, at about 2760 ft. Personal observation.

Common in a grassy opening on the downhill side of Tassajara Road between Hotel Point and The Cascades, at about 3800 ft. Personal observation.

Along the Horse Pasture Trail at Horse Pasture Creek, at about 2200 feet. Personal observation.

"Tassajara Springs" (a generalized location). Junea Kelly (CAS), June 1, 1917.

"Sur region." Mary Strong Clemens (CAS), 1905.

"Logwood Summit above Cold Springs on Big Sur Trail." Vern Yadon (PG), April 1986.

"Near falls on Pick Creek." Vern Yadon (PG), May 1975.

Santa Lucia Trail in the upper watershed of Santa Lucia Creek (the one that's a tributary to the Arroyo Seco). Dave Nelson (p. c. May 15, 1999).

"Slope of Junipero Serra Peak approximately 2 miles above the Indians." Vern Yadon (PG), July 1977.

Santa Lucia Trail at junction of old tractor road from The Indians. Dave Nelson (p. c. May 15, 1999).

Along a dirt road off and to the north of the road between Jolon and The Indians, a short distance northwest of the Santa Lucia Creek crossing. Jon Libby (e-mail, May 18, 1999).

"Sycamore Creek [Santa Lucia Cr.], headwaters of the San Antonio River, 3-4 miles southeast of the Indians, elevation 1500 ft." Dennis Breedlove #43513 (CAS), May 10, 1978.

"Near San Antonio school house." William Dudley (DS), May 13, 1895.

 

Lupines that are at Their Most Northern or Most Southern Distribution in the Santa Lucia Mountains.

Lupinus concinnus J. Agardh, Bajada Lupine, reaches it most northern Coast Range distribution in the Santa Lucia Mountains of Monterey County. One of the more distinctive features of these densely villous and freely branched annual herbs, which are restricted to open, dry and rocky or disturbed habitats on south-facing slopes, is that the lower-most flowers are usually produced below the upper most leaves. This is a variable species that, as a whole, ranges from Monterey County and the Sierra Nevada foothills of Fresno County to northern Baja California, and eastward to Utah and Texas.

Another lupine that is at its most northern Coast Range distribution in the Santa Lucia Mountains is Spider Lupine, Lupinus benthamii A. A. Heller, although it ranges in the Sierra Foothills as far north as Sacramento County (it has also been reported to be in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta). These annual lupines are distinctive in having narrowly linear leaflets, which make the leaves look like spiders.

Lupinus pachylobus E. Greene may reach its most southern currently known Coast Range distribution in the Hames Valley area of the San Antonio foothills of the Santa Lucia Mountains northeast of the San Antonio Reservoir, where it was collected by Vern Yadon in May of 1983. These uncommon annual herbs occur in both the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada foothills, from Shasta County to Monterey and Fresno counties. A common name for this species is "Big Pod Lupine," and although the pods are not large in comparison to many other lupine species, they are larger than the pods of the very similar and much more common Lupinus bicolor (Miniature Sky Lupine). Both of these species look like dwarf versions of the well-known Sky Lupine (Lupinus nanus), which is by far the most common lupine of the Santa Lucia Mountains.

With the exception of a population on San Miguel Island in Santa Barbara County, Lupinus variicolor Steudel reaches its most southern distribution along the coast of Monterey County (or perhaps San Luis Obispo County, re. Munz 1959). True to its name, the petals on a single plant can range from white, yellow, rose or purple. These perennial herbs or subshrubs are strictly coastal, and range northward to Humboldt County. L. variicolor is doubtfully distinct from L. littoralis, which ranges along the Pacific Coast from British Columbia to Mendocino County.

If one considers the Monterey Peninsula to be a part of the Santa Lucia Mountains, the very rare and endangered Lupinus tidestromii E. Greene could be added to this list. These prostrate perennial herbs, which are restricted to coastal strand, were for many years thought to be endemic to the Monterey Peninsula, but were later discovered in Sonoma and Marin counties.

 

Herbarium Abbreviations.

CAS= California Academy of Sciences Herbarium, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco.
DS= Dudley Herbarium of Stanford University (now merged with the California Academy of Sciences Herbarium).
JEPS= Jepson Herbarium (housed with, but filed separately from, the collections of the University of California Herbarium).
PG= Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History Herbarium, Pacific Grove.
UC= University of California Herbarium, Berkeley.

References.

ABRAMS, LEROY.
Field Notes. On file in the type specimen room of the California Academy of Sciences Herbarium, San Francisco.

CLARK, DONALD T.
1991. Monterey County Place Names. Kestrel Press, Carmel Valley, CA.

EWAN, JOSEPH.
1973. William Lobb, Plant Hunter for Veitch and Messenger of the Big Tree. University of California Publications in Botany 67, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London.

GREENE, EDWARD L.
1912. Lupinus latissimus in Leaflets of Botanical Observation and Criticism, vol. 2, page 68.

GRIFFIN, JAMES.
1975. Plants of the Highest Santa Lucia and Diablo Range Peaks, California. USDA Forest Service Research Paper PSW-110.

HOOVER, ROBERT F.
1970. The Vascular Plants of San Luis Obispo County, California. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

JEPSON, WILLIS LINN.
1936. Lupinus in A Flora of California, vol. 2. Associated Students Bookstore, University of California, Berkeley. 1933. Botanical Explorers of California. Madrono 2 (3): 25-29).

KELLOGG, ALBERT.
1863. Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences, vol. 2: Lupinus stiversii, page 192, and Lupinus cervinus, page 229.

MATTHEWS, MARY ANN.
1997. An Illustrated Field Key to the Flowering Plants of Monterey County, and Ferns, Fern Allies, and Conifers. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA.

MUNZ, PHILIP.
1959. A California Flora. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London.

RIGGINS, RHONDA, AND TERESA SHOLARS.
1993. Lupinus in The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London.

SMITH, CHARLES P.
1924. Studies in the Genus Lupinus XI. Some New Names and Combinations. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 51 (7): 303-310.

YADON, VERN.
Unpublished notes: "Never Again Ridge," June 23-24, 1979. "Bear Basin Trail from Pine Ridge Trail Junction and Bear Basin," May 10, 1980. "Elephant Back, NE Corner of Section 35, Tassajara Hot Springs Quadrangle," July 4, 1980.


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